Plain English Genetic Genealogy

Mitochondrial (mt)DNA


mtDNA and Y-DNA, two specific types of DNA testing results, can also be useful in genealogy but, for most of my “Plain English Genetic Genealogy” blog entries, I will focus on atDNA.  It is, however, very important to understand both mt- and Y-DNA and how it may be used to further family tree research.

If you remember your high school genetics, you know that males determine the gender of each of their children.  Men carry two distinct types of gender-determining chromosomes: one X and one Y.   Males typically give either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome to their child.  If they give a Y, the child is male; if they give the X, the child is female.  There are times when a different type of chromosome situation appears but that conversation is for blogs on genetics, not genealogy.

From that same high school biology class, you should also remember that women have two identical gender chromosomes, both of which are X.  This means that women can only pass on an X chromosome to their children.  This is why the male always determines the gender of the child, never the female.  And, what gives Henry VIII a bad rep for getting rid of wives who could not produce a male heir; it wasn’t them it was him.

Mitochondrial or mtDNA

So, women only have the X chromosome to pass down and, contained in that X is mitochondrial or mtDNA.  The simple fact is that the X your mom gave you—whether you are male or female—carries the identical mtDNA that her mom gave to her.  And, her mom’s mtDNA is identical to the mtDNA that her mom gave to her and that her mom’s mom gave and her mom’s mom’s mom gave and on and on and on.

Mitochondrial DNA mutates (changes) about once every 20-30,000 years and each of those mutations are really, really small.  So, statistically speaking, you would have to go back about 1000 great grandmas to find a different mtDNA than that which your mom gave you; and, even then it would not really be that much different.  And, unlike dad, mom is an equal-opportunity donor; she gives all her children—whether sons or daughters—an exact copy of her mtDNA.

Science determined we can trace every single human (Homo sapiens) living today back to one (Homo sapien) mom who lived about 120-150,000 years ago; this mom has been given the name, Mitochondrial Eve.  [In fact, it is recognized that there were probably more than one woman with this unique mtDNA but, for the purposes of this blog, we’re going with a single woman because it works.  So when I reference 500 women, you could think of it as 500 unique mtDNA sequences irrespective of how many women there actually were.  It is just easier to write about this as if Mitochondrial Eve was a single woman.  Besides, it’s more fun and I get to use National Geographic‘s cool photo.]

It is not like we know exactly who this woman really was but, based on the length of time mutations happen and the ability to identify the differences (mutations) in mtDNA of the DNA pool we have today, it is possible to figure out how long ago lived the woman who carried the same unique mtDNA (with varying mutations) we see in today’s humans.

It is important to keep in mind that, after that first mutation of Mitochondrial Eve’s DNA, it is not as if each subsequent mutation will be the same as the one on the other side of that first split.  Imagine one little teeny piece of DNA (using the genetic code of ATCG) in Mitochondrial Eve’s mtDNA read: ATCGGTAC and the first mutation produced ATCGATGC for one line and left the other as ATCGGTAC.  The next time each mutates, ATCGATGC changed to ATCGATCG and ATCGGTAC might have been TACGGTAC.  You can now see, with 16,500 DNA building blocks (base pairs) and 37 genes, the potential for the incredibly large number of places a single mutation can happen.  This is how my mtDNA could radically differ from yours even though we both started 120,000-plus years ago with the same ancient ancestor, Mitochondrial Eve.

I’d like to take a moment to say that “Plain English Genetic Genealogy” is not intended to be highly scientific.  The intent is to (hopefully) inform readers, in language that makes sense to their needs, what most need to know to make use of their DNA test results.  My examples and explanations are to inform genealogy, not develop scientists.

Let’s approach this concept of Mitochondrial Eve a little differently.  Though I am certain someone somewhere has attempted to determine the number of Homo sapiens living 200,000 years ago, I could not find it so let’s pick a really easy number: 1000.  Of this, approximately 50 percent would be female so 500 women.  Of these, let’s say that one-quarter did not live to bear children, which leaves us 375 women, each with unique mtDNA.  Of these 375, let’s say only 281 had daughters.  This means that from this very first point in history, the unique mtDNA of 93 or 94 of these women never went any further because they only passed down their unique mtDNA to sons who do not pass it on.

Why?  Because while mothers pass down their mitochondrial DNA to all their children, only those children who are daughters can pass it down to their children.  For some biological reason (for which many genealogists will forever be grateful) men do not pass on their mom’s mitochondrial DNA.  So, only the women in a long line of women will pass on their unique mtDNA.  Again, it doesn’t matter how far back you go, mitochondrial DNA follows only a single female line.

Slide from my Basic Genetic Genealogy presentation.

So, now we’re left with 281 unique mtDNA chromosomes.  Of those, let’s conclude that together these moms had 1124 children of which 600 lived to child-bearing years, with 300 (50 percent) being female.  No matter how we look at it, this now limits the number of unique mtDNA chromosomes to a maximum of 300 and an unknown but potentially low minimum to be passed down to the next generation of Homo sapiens (because some of those 300 would have been sisters with identical mtDNA).  Even using the same percents as with the initial example, let’s say one-quarter of these moms only have sons; this leaves 225 unique mtDNA chromosomes to be passed down through the generations of daughters.  So, within just three generations, at least 275 unique mtDNA chromosomes were not passed on to future generations. This continues on and on and on until today.

And, each of these unique mtDNA chromosomes will undergo mutations—one about every 20-30,000 years.  These mutations form new unique versions of mtDNA, which are what is present in today’s humans (Homo sapiens).  Identifying and accounting for the mutations, it is possible to (tentatively) go back far enough to determine which original mtDNA chromosome has outlasted all the rest and when that woman lived.  The (unknown) owner of that original mtDNA chromosome has been called, Mitochondrial Eve and science believes she likely lived 120-150,000 years ago; this number is fluid as science progresses.

Again.  Mom passes her mom’s mtDNA to all her children.

Only daughters will pass on their mtDNA—that they get only from their mother—to their children and only their daughters will pass it on (in its identical form) to the next generation.

I am guessing that some of you—especially those searching for information on female ancestors—already see the potential of using mtDNA in your genealogical research.  Yes.  If one of the women in a direct female line (mom, mom’s mom, her mom’s mom, etc.) exactly matches another mtDNA test, then there is a common ancestor.

Tremendous, right?  Except.  How many of your 2x great aunt’s great grandchildren will know anything about your direct family line?  It is possible, absolutely, but not all that likely unless that third cousin, is a fellow genealogist with a treasure trove of diaries.  Definitely worth checking out but I would not hold my breath.

Because, if your mom only had sons, her mtDNA stops with you (because, if she only had sons, you’d be one of them).  But, if she had a sister, then that same mtDNA would be passed down, just not through your direct family line.  If each of your mom’s sisters only had sons, then your grandma’s sisters would have passed this mtDNA down to their daughters who would pass it down.  If your grandmother had no sisters, either, then you will need to keep going back to the first great grandmother who had more than one daughter who lived to bear daughters who bore daughters.  

What if you’re looking for a birth mother?  Now, I have your attention.  An mtDNA match with another person (male or female) could very likely be a half-sibling.  If they are willing to communicate freely, you may have found the birth mom.

This works even if you are trying to find your great grandmother’s birth mother.  mtDNA changes only about once every 20-30,000 years so if you find a match to your mtDNA, then that person is likely your second or third cousin from whom you have a good chance of getting your 2x great grandmother’s name (your most recent common ancestor or MRCA) and, other than the person you match, all of those ancestors you and your match have in common with mtDNA will be women all from the same maternal line.

Mitochondrial DNA also provides something called a haplogroup.  A haplogroup identifies which ancient regional signature your DNA matches.  Haplogroup information is passed down from both parents (in moms through mtDNA; in dads through Y-DNA) and is useful in understanding a person’s early origins and the migration paths their ancient ancestors took to get where you are today.  More on this in the Y-DNA blog entry.


mtDNA has long been useful in an historic perspective.  For an interesting story on how science proved Jesse James really was dead and buried in Kearney, Nebraska, check out Blaine Bettinger’s The Genetic Genealogist blog on Famous DNA Review, Part IV — Jesse James.  I remember when this happened and I have been hooked on the uses of DNA ever since; long before I got captivated with genealogy.

Mitochondrial Eve image from National Geographic: “Human Journey.”

Busy, Busy, Busy.

It has certainly been a while and I promise to never go this long without posting again.  But, much has been happening.

Picture2I finally put the Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly journal for Summer 2017 to bed this past week.  My third as editor and—if I do say so myself, and I do—it is my best yet.  Looks good, excellent articles and (hopefully, with multiple reviews) error free.  This week I also wrapped up a program I facilitated for some veterans in Stephenson County on behalf of the county’s Veterans Assistance program.  Thursday, the Stephenson County Genealogical Society (of which I am the prez) sponsored a living history event with President Ulysses and First Lady Julia (Dent) Grant.  I wrapped up development (well, working with developers) on our Stephenson County Genealogical Society new website (  And, I received nearly 50 sets of new DNA data last Tuesday and have been diligently putting them on GEDMatch and doing some genetic genealogy analysis.

And, finding a new family member.

Genetic genealogy seems to have taken over my life in the past year.  A half-sister discovered last February and within hours of beginning to post family DNA data on GEDMatch this past week, it was clear my already huge maternal family side was about to add yet another cousin.  A young man looking for his biological father.  It seems I’ve found him but, wouldn’t you know it?  His father is from the one line descended from my grandfather with whom no one seems to have continued contact.  But, since there are at least 400 other family members in this group (we have our own Facebook page) this gentlemen is no longer at a loss for family on his paternal side.

I marvel at the technology we have today.  My mind reels from the ability to find information—documents, mind you—of ancestors dead for centuries.  Did they ever even think that one- or two-hundred years from then that their ancestors could potentially track their entire lives?  If so, you’d have to wonder about some of the trails they left behind…..

So, on to the next things on my agenda.

  • Back to work on the Wayne Street house histories.
  • Back to work on the Willow Creek Farm book I’m ghostwriting (and it’s about a haunted house, so pun kinda intended).
  • Recruiting authors for the Fall 2017 issue of the Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly.
  • Analyzing family DNA kits.
  • Writing this blog on a return-to-regular basis.
  • Prepping for the three Lifelong Learning genealogy courses I’m teaching this fall at Highland College.

I think that ‘bout covers it!

Ties That Bind

Misc_0015The Stephenson County Genealogical Society meets this Thursday, May 4th at the Freeport Public Library (100 Douglas Street, Freeport, IL).

6:00pm to 6:30pm     Meeting
6:30pm to 8:00pm     Ties that Bind with Lenora Leucke.

Love. Health. Traditions. Memories. Genealogy.  Join SCGS this Thursday to learn how our past connects us and understand what our ancestors can tell us about our health and more.

Photo: Larson Collection. property of the Stephenson County Genealogical Society

Leta in my Home

I suppose most of the world wonders about us.  Why we do what we do with such passion that we’ll stay up all night, pepper family with questions for which no one could possibly know the answer (though, they would be surprised at what a single memory might provoke in terms of paths), stay bent over our computers for hours or similarly disposed in county offices surrounded by hundred-year-old stacks of books and documents.

It’s because of pearls like this: Leta Maude Best Mueller.


Turns out, Leta and her husband, Alfred Felix Mueller lived in my home from 1923 to 1939, perhaps longer.  Alfred, a grocery store shipping clerk at Guyer & Calkins Wholesale Groceries in Freeport, and Leta had two children, Max B (1916-2006) and Jean A (1920-2002) whom, one would expect, grew up in this house.

It’s odd.  Now that I know about this family, I can imagine these four people living here.  I don’t know a lot about them (yet) but I can imagine that the parents shared the room that is now my office—at the end of the hall, the biggest in size with a rather large sitting room.  I suspect Max, the oldest and the only male child, probably slept in the second largest room—also with its own large sitting room—and, the stairs to the full walk-through attic within which he likely played, perhaps hung out one of the dormer windows yelling to friends on the street or contemplating the stars.  And, he might well have seen the sky from the attic or his sitting room, as the giant weeping pine tree wouldn’t have been blocking his view (if it was even there at the time).

Jean was probably relegated to the smallest bedroom—9 by 13 wouldn’t have been all that small for a bedroom—with no  sitting room.  And, though I will likely find out by the time I get to the tax records portion of this house history search, next to the bathroom I’ve always wondered was original to the house or if it once might have served as her sitting room.

Okay, it’s not like I didn’t know people lived in my 100-plus year old house, so why am I seemingly so enthusiastic?

Leta Maude Best Mueller went to college.

In an era where few women attended college–and even fewer colleges were co-ed–it seems Leta attended Wesleyan in Bloomington, Illinois (majoring and serving as undergraduate assistant in English) for her first two years then transferred to Northwestern University where she studied English and “the science curriculum.”  I haven’t yet learned if she graduated but I hope to even though I suspect she did not.

I’ve begun to trace Leta and Albert’s family trees but it appears Leta’s grandfather was a physician, which might account for her interest in and ability to attend college.

What really made today’s search most special was finding this.  I present Leta Maude Best, junior at Northwestern University.


SCGS Meets April 6th

In February of this year, I became the president of the Stephenson County Genealogical Society, which is a very cool volunteer job.  For a genealogical society, we have a fairly good-sized membership with a great group of people and a small cadre of very active volunteers.  And, we get to call the Frances Woodhouse History Room at the Freeport Public Library (100 Douglas Street, Freeport, Illinois) home.  As local history rooms go, our library’s is one of the best (okay, the best) I’ve ever had the pleasure to explore.


SCGS meets the first Thursday of the month with the exceptions of January and July when there is no monthly meeting. The next SCGS meeting is Thursday, April 6th at the Freeport Public Library.  The business meeting begins at 6pm and, though we usually follow our business meeting with a presentation, this Thursday we encourage all members and residents of Freeport to attend the Freeport Public Library’s One Book, One Freeport event, “Living History Portrayal of a Buffalo Soldier.” 

You will hear of the experiences and challenges of life during Reconstruction from the son of a sharecropper of African- and Native-American heritage. This living history presentation reflects the life of a buffalo soldier in the U.S. Cavalry during the nineteenth century. Presented by Steven A. Cole. April 6, 6:30 p.m. at the Freeport Public Library.

At our June 1st meeting, SCGS welcomes back Scott Whitney, a retired math and science teacher, as President Ulysses S Grant with Peggy Whitney, elementary teacher, portraying First Lady Julia Dent Grant in public interview.  All are welcome; there are no fees for SCGS events!

President and First Lady

Scott Whitney, a retired math and science teacher, portrays Lt. General Ulysses S Grant Grant, or President Grant. Peggy Whitney, elementary teacher, portrays Mrs. Julia Dent Grant.  The June 1st presentation for the Stephenson County Genealogical Society begins at 6:30pm (following the SCGS business meeting at 6pm) at the Freeport Public Library (100 Douglas Street, Freeport, Illinois) and will consist of a public interview of President and First Lady Grant.

We’re Official!

It took a long time, but CPGen is now officially open for business!


There are still a few steps to climb before the doors are thrown open to the public but it won’t be long now.  We’re working on a sample house history that has turned into an entire block history and there are a couple of other sample pieces that need to be prepped so that they can be placed on this site, but things are moving along.

We accept record-search requests for Stephenson and surrounding Illinois counties.  If you are interested in having CPGen conduct searches for you, please go to the CPGen Fees & Services page for more information.  CPGen does conduct some document searches in Stephenson County at no charge for the search (there may be document fees).

One more step accomplished!


Centuries of Progress Genealogy: How’d we get here?

The most commonly asked question about CPGen concerns the origin of our name.  As a born’n’bred Chicagoan with a penchant for Chicago’s history and a one-time collector of all things Chicago World’s Fairs (the first, in 1893, was the Columbian Exposition honoring 400 years since Columbus sailed–eh, it was a very different time in the 1890s), it’s actually a nice progression.  But, the real impetus was a single photograph.


One evening during an overlong holiday vacation, I finally went through the family photos and papers I’d sorted out after my sister unexpectedly passed away during the previous year.  Among them, I found a photograph of my father that I’d not before seen.  On the back was written: Jimmy and Anthony-Chicago World’s Fair.  (That’s my dad on the left.)

And, of course, my first thought was: Why didn’t I ever ask?


During that same stretch of vacation boredom, I privately messaged a cousin on my mother’s side, explaining a family story that she certainly should have known but didn’t.  She ended the conversation with that oft-given phrase: We should write a book.

Ah, I suspect those two statements began the career of many of genealogist.

Who doesn’t think their family is intriguing enough to write that book?  (If you know of someone who doesn’t think so, then they must not know their family history.)  While I’ve dealt with many a client or family member incredibly disappointed that the great-grandmother they believed an “Indian princes who danced for the Queen of England” or the great-great grandfather who single-handedly defeated Napoleon wasn’t and didn’t, what I unearthed about their ancestors tends to be much better.  Most often, men and women who were risk-takers, especially those who left their homes and homelands to come to America—land of great promise and great uncertainty—and persevered.

And, is there one human on the planet over the age of 40 who hasn’t, at least once, mentally kicked themselves for not thinking to have asked a deceased parent or grandparent about that time when they…?  Or, worse yet, not being interested enough to have really listened while their grandparent regaled them with stories.

Those were the two events that propelled me into becoming a genealogist.  And, somehow, We Should Write a Book or I Shoulda Asked Genealogy didn’t have quite the same ring as, Centuries of Progress Genealogy.  Plus, neither of those lend themselves to a cool Art Deco logo as does CPGen.


For more information on the Chicago’s 1933 Centuries of Progress World’s Fair, the Newberry Library’s “Picturing a Century of Progress, the 1933-34 Chicago World’s Fair” is a great starting point.  For an amazing array of Century of Progress records, check out the 264 photographs and 16 oversize folders at the Chicago Public Library.